Subjects and Citizens

British-American War

Napoleon’s wars in Europe, President Madison’s war against England.

Subjects and Citizens

Napoleon’s defeat

The Bergmann brothers Niklas and Heinrich in Napoleon’s Grande Armée.

Subjects and Citizens

The Bergmanns leave

Hunger and despair in the Grand-Duchy of Berg. Mass emigrations begins.

Subjects and Citizens

No time for books

Great need in Germany. Many emigrant children are illiterate.

Subjects and Citizens

The “frontier”

The United States push their border, further and ever further westwards

Subjects and Citizens

Revolution fails

In Germany, revolution fails, Lorenz Bergmann must flee.

Subjects and Citizens

Castle Garden

Lorenz arrives in New York, with him is an Irish family who escapes famine.